Difference between radiometric and radiocarbon dating dating siti web software
This is an example of the Weak force, and is fairly rare.
Electron capture requires that there be an electron in the vicinity of the nucleus, so its activity depends strongly on the configuration of the electron cloud, which depends on the chemical state.
In some cases radioactive decay itself can be observed and measured in distant galaxies when a supernova explodes and ejects unstable nuclei.
There are a few effects that can alter radioactive half-lives, but they are mostly well understood, and in any case would not materially affect the radiometric dating results.
The reason is that, because the atomic number is only four, the 2s valence electrons are very close to the 1s electrons involved in capture.That is, electrons can move closer to or farther away from the nucleus depending on the chemical bonds.This affects the coulomb barrier involved in Alpha decay, and therefore changes the height and width of the barrier through which the alpha particle must tunnel.Radiometric dating requires that the decay rates of the isotopes involved be accurately known, and that there is confidence that these decay rates are constant. The physical constants (nucleon masses, fine structure constant) involved in radioactive decay are well characterized, and the processes are well understood.Careful astronomical observations show that the constants have not changed significantly in billions of years—spectral lines from distant galaxies would have shifted perceptibly if these constants had changed.