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While the Kings-lists are only able to offer us the sequence of Pharaohs, there have been two radiocarbon studies on the Giza complex which allowing us to put dates to the names on the list. In the 1980s several ancient Egyptian monuments, including the Great Pyramid, were radiocarbon dated.Radiocarbon dating cannot be applied to stone, but it can be used to date fragments of organic material, such as wood and charcoal, which are sometimes found embedded in the mortar between the stone blocks.Because of the poor condition, piecing the fragments together has proven to be difficult.These lists have been used to create a comparative dating system for many sites and artefacts by comparing them with the cartouches found on objects uncovered.The two versions do not agree on names, or on the counting of years.To give just one example, Syncellus, who copied Africanus' list, wrote, "The twenty-fourth dynasty, Bocchoris of Sais, for six years: in his reign a lamb spoke [a short gap in the manuscript] 990 years." Meanwhile Eusebius wrote, "Bocchoris of Sais for 44 years: in his reign a lamb spoke.
More serious is that the original text of Manetho is no longer available; what we have are garbled editions quoted by two late Roman writers (Eusebius and Africanus), plus an excerpt from Josephus.The traditional sources for this study are: ancient records and inscriptions, radio-carbon dating and archaeo-astronomy.Each of theses methods has its own inherent problems associated to it as an accurate means of determination.Total, 44 years." We are left guessing whether the XXIV dynasty lasted for 6 years, 44, or 990.The names and ages Manetho gave for the kings of the two dynasties we know the most about, the eighteenth and nineteenth, were proven wrong in almost every instance when compared with the evidence left by the pharaohs themselves. Breasted to describe Manetho's history as "a late, careless and uncritical compilation, which can be proven wrong from the contemporary monuments in the vast majority of cases, where such monuments have survived.